Thursday, December 25, 2003
(Copyright (C) J. Michael, Robodyne Cybernetics Ltd 1994-2000)
-Get A Grip On Robotics:
-History Timeline of Robotics:
-A Short History of Robots:
-Robot on Encyclopedia:
-Robotics Machines and Man:
-Robots Promise Us an Endless Vacation:
(© Copyright 2003 Roland Piquepaille.
Last update: 30/11/2003; 11:37:39.)
(Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center
San Antonio, Texas USA)
Tuesday, December 23, 2003
From the past experience it shows that humans next step is toward a new era, where humans and robots work together for the best. Since researches now are creating new techniques for robots to develop so they can be used more in our life, robots will be able to give us time to work in other creative scopes, have more time with our family, and have more time with ourselves. Thus, we all agreed that robots will help humans to be more creative and give them free time to be used for things that are better to do. In addition, we think that there still are things humans only can do where robots can't. Also, we Believe that humans will always have their own significant creative mind and essence that robots won't be able to compete it.
The Expert predicts that high development will occur on the robots. Their mobility will increase to give them the ability to move in any environment. They will also have direct interaction with the physical surroundings. And their communication will be by natural language between people. Furthermore, their intelligence will be highly risen after the control software and algorithms are advanced, robots will be able to react even in unexpected situations. And they expect also that robot at the end will be capable of doing many tasks that human can do in every scope. Some thinks that this might be dangerous to workers and employees, and it might cause idleness in society, since robots able to do everything. In the other hand, others believe that new jobs will be given instead of the old ones or that the robots will give us free time to work on things better for humanity, also they say that robots will be only used in tasks that is suitable for them. In our point of view, robots are the only to help us and will free us from our daily tasks, and give us the efficient time to be more with ourselves and to be productive
Many researches and studies in the robotic tend to bring more developments for creating advanced robots. Some of are experimenting with many robots to study them and to find a way to solve the technology obstacles they encounter recently. A research is made in Laboratory of perceptual robotics at Umass. They have designed a humanoid robot (LPR) to give them a clear idea about cognition of the outer world and how meanings being comprehended, the study aims at gaining new theories to control intelligent robots by developing their computational accounts about sensorimotor and cognition. Another study is performed to give a general idea about stability and mobility techniques designed for multi legged and multi fingered robots. In Mechanical Engineering David Camarillo is doing a research in 2002, about the safety of the interactions between humans and robots since usage of robots now are extending into many aspects of our life. Also, there’s another research made in Massachusetts Institute of technology in media lab, for creating more realistic robots by Cynthia Brazeal
The robot was invented to be used in many activities in our daily life and that made it more suitable and sufficient.
It’s divided in many types, each type has It’s own use and applications. We had classified robots in to types according to it’s use, the first type is the industrial robot which is often take the shape of bodiless arm, it’s used in factories for production also it can carry out lots of different tasks such as drilling, paint, spreading, welding or gripping.
The second type of robot is the scientific robot, which can be used in many extents such as exploring space. Space robot has many different body shapes such as sphere, platform with wheels or legs or balloon. They are used for exploring anther planet human can’t reach them. Also scientific robot used for exploring the ocean surface and for geological and historical research also they are used in laboratories for technology studies. Anther type of robot is the medical robot that it’s used in hospital to help the elders and the ill also it contributes in surgeries rising it’s probability of it’s success.
Robot also used in military, they can be used for spying in wars or saving the Ingrid people and rescuing them also it can be used to search for dangerous terrain fields filled with bombs.
Robot also comes in the way of entertainment by intelligent toys produced only for fun such as AIBO. the last type of robot is the home robot this type used to do house work tasks and obligations.
Robots are made of many parts that work together as one, there are 2 main sets of the robot consistence, and they are the basic parts, and accessories. The Basic parts also classified into 5 category,
First is the Controller, it works inside the robot as its brain, by it the robot can move, store data about the work settings and execute the program stored in it to perform a certain task. Mainly the robot brain constructed with a computer for storage and execution to operate, and a control system for process activities, such as logic analyzing, data algorithms to plan ahead and programs for the robot to react and work efficiently inside the work environment. The control system has many various types, it depends on the performances they must make, such as the industrial robots that work for simple tasks, and repeat them spontaneously during the production period, so they have simple control system only for operating their controllers for execution and repeating the task. As for the advanced robots, it has more developed and complicated control system, such as the one it’s used in space robots, which they need to control the overflow of their power and control their processing of data and computations. Also adding mobility to the robot will effect on its control system, depending on the way in which they move their needs will differ. If the robot is moved by a remote control the robot depends on the human operator who direct it. The robot gives information about the environment around it to the operator, then depending on those information the operator will instruct the robot about the directions and his movements, that might be instantly or it might take some time. But for the autonomously robot, they need programs to analyze the surroundings to decide how to act, they need also to save their past experience so they could use them to recognize new cases and improve their actions for more success.
Secondly, it’s the body, the body have many shapes depending on their usage. The shape of an arm is mostly used for industrial robots, which they are immovable and only function in their work area, space robots would take many shapes accordingly to their mission. For example, sphere shapes would be preferable for decreasing damage, a platform with wheels used to cross over land, and balloons shapes is taken for robots that float around the air environment to attain information.
Third category is the mobility, robots move around the environment to accomplish their tasks, and depending on the environment and the task given to them their way of mobility differ. For an instant, robots in order to move in the water they depend on propellers and rudders for controlling their paths and tracks, it’s best to make the robot move as a fish because it doesn’t make sounds, has a better way of movement and it’s less consuming of energy. On the land case, robots will be walking on legs or moving by trucks or wheels, wheels is mostly popular with robots that move on land ‘cause they are more steady and can move around the rough surfaces. The last one is moving through air and space, robots use engines for moving around, by using thrust power for speeding up or slowing down the engines.
Power is most important for the robot, without it they would be meaningless machines. Power sources usually come from electricity, which being managed by industrial robots. They also use pneumatic or hydraulic power. Other sources are solar cells and batteries which being handled by the mobile robots. The last source of power that being used by space probes, as an alternative power source is heat. It’s used produce a direct current of electric power from natural waste of platinum, this is acquired since the life span of the battery is short comparing with the mission time the probe would take to explore space.
The last category in the Basic part is sensors, they are other part of the robot consistence, they mean to the robot as a perceptual system. The robot can take measurement of the physical environment using those sensors, these measurements will a clear understanding about the surroundings around the robot, and this will give it the ability to act and behave accordingly to the information. The type of sensors they might have is based on the situations that the robot would encounter. Sensors basically provide qualified range field of view for the robot to have the ability to sense objects from the surroundings. They could have also acoustic sensors for detecting sound and motion, also, infrared sensors for detecting heat sources, contact sensors and tactile sensors for giving it the sense of touch.
Accessories are additive unique tools that the robot would handle depending on their performance and the mission they would take. They carry it inside their bodies and the end of their manipulators such as arms, wrists and other to aid the robot to move objects such as, sensors, gripping device, a drill, etc.
Robots are used in several ways in our general life, because of many good features that it have, still it have some drawbacks in some points as for the utilities of the robots. A robot is useful for boring or dangerous complicated tasks that impossible for human to do, like working with harmful chemicals, in high temperature or in other planets because robot doesn’t breath so they don’t need air. It also helps people inside their house work so it make the life more comfortable for them and let them have more free time to do many things else. Robot also never need rest, get tried or sick other than repairing and recharging. They also don’t need to eat or drink, get to toilets get bored from rebated work, take vacation or have to training like human do, so robot will save both time and many more than human being.
However robots aren’t complete, perfect workers, they are just tools that help us, so they have some disadvantages because they aren’t creative. They don’t have ability to act by them selves because they need human to assign tasks for them; they also can’t make complicated decision, or learn from their mistaken, so it is better to depend in real people, in business that need these abilities
Robots were existed from many years before, but the word robot used for the first time in 1920’s by Czech written Karl Capek in a play named “Rossum’s Universal Robots” The story was about “man makes robot then robot kills man!” Then in 1942 the “Three Laws of Robotics” was started in a story written by Asiman, The first law say robots may not cause harm to human, Secondly a robot should follows human’s orders expect that harm human. Finally, a robot has to protect itself without violating the tow past lows. Robot didn’t have any visual features and mobility until 1968, (SRI) builds a mobile robot Shakey and it controlled by a big computer that have the size of room. Until 2000, Developments reached the sum to begin with more advanced robots called The humanoid robots, that have high mobility, sensation abilities and Intelligent interactions. Some of them have human shapes such as (Asimo), from Honda, or like animals such as (Aibo) the robot dog from Sony and (omron’s NeCoro) a robot cat. Developments still continues in the present time, this will be discussed in the following section that talks about developments recently.
Monday, October 20, 2003
Robots have always been seen in the science fictions whether it was on screen or written in stories, but Infact the real robots of today are really diffrent from the ones we imagine them now, they don't really act the way that is shown with the great intelligence and mobility in those fictions.
Robot is an automaton mechanical device, which had been giving a computer brain to accomplish several tasks and can even used to work on complicated missions, they are found always working in industrial factories or in laboratories for scientific purpose. They made our devolepment in life run faster by enhancing our industry economy and contributing with the scientific dicoveries, that lead our daily life to become much easier, since robots have many features like speed and accuracy.
Robots officially began in the 1920's, in that time they were just a fantasy of the fiction writers, but now they became a reality. for the future, robots will spread throughout our world and going to take a major stand , they will potentially effect in the essance of our life in the future from the time it was just and imaginary of the past history.